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Sorghum bicolor is a species of grass, traditionally cultivated for its nutritious grain. Sorghum is now grown in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world and is gaining increased popularity as a non-gluten grain. Historical uses of Sorghum include food, hot teas, beers, and traditional medicinal extracts.

Health Benefits Include

  • Multi-facetted anti-inflammatory properties

  • Immune activation

  • Hematopoietic effect

  • Pain reduction


An herbal-based nutritional supplement containing the leaf sheaths of the plant Sorghum bicolor,

with potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and immunomodulating activities.

Sorghum bicolor supplement contains various phytochemicals, including phenolic acids and

polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins.

Sorghum bicolor supplement is particularly rich in 3-deoxyanthocyanins, such as luteolinidin and

apigeninidin, and appears to induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation in cancer cells through

the stimulation of various apoptosis promoter genes and the downregulation of certain apoptosis

inhibitor genes. In addition, due to the strong antioxidant nature of the phytochemicals, these

compounds are able to scavenge free radicals and prevent tissue damage. Also, intake of this

supplement modulates the immune system by both increasing the activity of natural killer (NK) cells

and initiating the activation of macrophages.

Synonym:sorghum bicolor extract

Foreign brand name:Jobelyn



A Preprint Review Article on Jobelyn is awaiting the peer review. 


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Polyphenol-rich nutritional supplement derived from the Leaf Sheaths of the West African Sorghum bicolor has evidence-based efficacy and health-promoting effects.


Across different cultures around the globe, human beings have historically depended largely on medicinal plants for managing diseases that have hitherto threatened their optimal health, survival, and longevity. Evidently, the health-derived benefits of medicinal plants can be strongly attributed to the presence of secondary metabolites, particularly polyphenols. The health-promoting effects of a Sorghum bicolor supplement Jobelyn® (SBSJ), derived from the leaf sheaths of a West African variety of S. bicolor (L.) Moench have also been ascribed to its high levels of polyphenols. This review seeks to gather and synthesize findings from various experimental and clinical studies on the health benefits of SBSJ in arthritis, cancer, chronic viral infections, stroke, anaemia, and aging. SBSJ has been reported to contain potent bioactive polyphenolic compounds with polyvalent biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, chemopreventive, and neuroprotective activities. Moreover, the probable benefits of SBSJ in chronic viral infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS and COVID-19) may be due to its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. The key findings of this review suggest that there is a need for more robust studies (including clinical trials) in order to replicate and validate the prior insights gleaned from experimental studies on SBSJ.

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Jobelyn® is produced from a unique wild variety of Sorghum bicolor, recently domesticated from a West African wild variety, representing original genetic makeup and not a result of intense breeding efforts. Jobelyn® is an extract derived specifically from the intensely colored leaf sheaths. Sorghum is GRAS-certified by the FDA. Jobelyn® has an unusual chemical profile compared to other variants of Sorghum bicolor. It has a very high content of unique antioxidant polyphenols, including unique dimeric 3-deoxyanthocyanidins. These compounds contribute to the chemical and biological antioxidant effects.

Chronic inflammatory conditions underlie many aspects of declining physical and mental health. Comprehensive anti-inflammatory nutritional strategies are increasingly gaining attention for health management.

Inflammation involves multiple pathways, including:

  • Production of damaging free radicals

  • Infiltration of inflammatory cells into target tissues

  • Up-regulation of inflammatory enzymes, such as COX-2

Jobelyn® was evaluated in laboratory tests involving separate mechanisms of action. Jobelyn® contains a complex array of compounds with different chemical properties that inhibit free radical production, reduce infiltration of inflammatory cells, and inhibit COX-2 enzymatic activity. This suggests a multi-faceted anti-inflammatory capacity of JobelynTM

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Oxygen is essential for our life. However, oxygen is used in chemical reactions in our body to produce free radicals, which are harmful, electrically charged ions. Antioxidants are compounds capable of neutralizing free radicals that would otherwise potentially damage cells and tissues. Antioxidants help to prevent damage to cells and tissue, and provide multi-faceted health benefits.



Free radical:
An atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron. Unpaired electrons are highly reactive and can damage living cells.


A compound capable of donating an electron and thus neutralizing the electrical charge that may otherwise lead to cascading cellular damage.

While the ORAC test helps demonstrate whether a product contains chemicals that are able to perform antioxidant reactions, it does not tell us if compounds are functioning as protective antioxidants in biological systems. Because of this limitation of the ORAC test, the Cellular Antioxidant Protection in erythrocytes, or CAP-e, test was also used to test Jobelyn® . The CAP-e test directly measures antioxidant uptake and protection at the cellular level.

Jobelyn® showed cellular antioxidant protection capacity in the CAP-e test. The cellular protection seen in the CAP-e assay allows us to conclude that Jobelyn® contains antioxidants that are bioavailable and functional at the cellular level. Protection was seen both in the water extract and in the ethanol extract. This suggests a complex range of biologically active antioxidants in Jobelyn®

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Jobelyn® is produced from a unique variety of Sorghum bicolor, recently domesticated from a West African wild variety, representing original genetic makeup and not a result of intense breeding efforts. Jobelyn® is an extract derived specifically from the intensely colored leaf sheathes. Sorghum is GRAS-certified by the FDA. Jobelyn® has an unusual chemical profile compared to other variants of Sorghum bicolor. It has a very high content of unique antioxidant polyphenols, including unique dimeric 3-deoxyanthocyanidins. Given the traditional use of Sorghum-based products, including teas, in prevention of viral illness, Jobelyn® was tested for immune activating properties in laboratory tests.

Our immune system is not limited to a given organ or tissue, but is widespread throughout our body, blood, skin, and mucosal barriers. Immune cells, when activated, communicate in various ways by:

  • Expressing receptors on cell surfaces to receive signals.

  • Secreting compounds to send signals to other cells.​


Jobelyn® treatment of human immune cells resulted in increased expression of the CD69 activation marker on the cell surface of Natural Killer cells, NKT cells, T lymphocytes, and monocytes. The cytokine profile in these cell cultures showed up-regulation of multiple cytokines, including several chemokines known to be involved in anti-viral immune defenses.

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Potential therapeutic indications of JOBELYN in anaemic conditions

JOBELYN has gained significant recognition for its ability to boost haemoglobin (Hb) content and to cause rapid stimulation of the production of red blood cells (RBCs). This is particularly useful in reversing anaemia and its symptomatic presentations, including tiredness, dizziness, weakness, shortness of breath, headaches, and fainting [36]. Anaemia is most common in children, the elderly, and pregnant women [36]. The main causes of decreased production of RBC and Hb in anaemia include iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, and bone marrow tumours [36]. However, factors responsible for increased breakdown of RBC have been identified to include genetic disorder such as sickle cell anaemia, certain autoimmune diseases, stressors including chronic infections (e.g., malaria and HIV/AIDs), and haemolytic agents [36-37]. The most common clinical approach for the treatment of anaemia entails boosting RBC and Hb with iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12 supplementation [38-39]. Drugs and other agents that can stabilize RBCs may also be useful in certain anaemic conditions, especially those due to stressors such as chronic infections and exposure to haemolytic agents [37]. Severe anaemia in Africa has been described as a complex multi-factorial syndrome, for which a single conventional intervention may not be amenable [37].

The blood-boosting capability of JOBELYN has been observed in facilitating the treatment of moderate to severe anaemia associated with sickle-cell disease, cancer (e.g., leukaemia), malaria, and helminthiasis [15, 40]. JOBELYN is also prescribed as an adjuvant hematinic for pregnant women and patients with HIV/AIDs [14]. Pre-clinical studies have shown that JOBELYN increased RBC count, Hb content, and packed cell volume (PCV) in rats and rabbits infected with trypanosomes [19, 24]. Interestingly, some clinical studies have also established its ef usefulness in anaemic conditions [15, 40-41]. In a randomized open label clinical trial, it was reported that JOBELYN increased RBC count, Hb content, and PCV in women with pre-operative anaemic condition without inducing significant changes in the white blood cell and platelet counts [41]. Indeed, the prophylactic importance of JOBELYN in anaemia has been recognized beyond Nigeria [40, 42-43]. Taken together, these findings are of significance for public health.

The high concentration of iron in JOBELYN may be one of the ways though which it increases Hb content and PCV in clinical settings. The presence of vitamins B12, niacin, and riboflavin may also contribute to its blood-rejuvenating effect and ability to combat anaemia in chronic debilitating conditions, such as sickle cell disease, malaria, and HIV/AIDs [15, 42]. The presence of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids, which are known for their antioxidant effects and maintenance of cell membrane integrity, may also act to protect RBCs from lysis in pathological conditions. Interestingly, JOBELYN has been found to protect RBCs against lysis induced by hyposaline, suggesting the presence of phytochemicals with a cyto-protective effect [17, 43]. Additionally, oxidative stress has been implicated in the aging of RBCs and degradation of Hb molecules, which may contribute to the anaemic condition in individuals with chronic diseases [44-47]. Thus, the usefulness of JOBELYN in several anaemic conditions may be related to its combined capacity to boost RBC and Hb production while reducing oxidative stress in RBCs. Nevertheless, more studies are necessary to elucidate the exact mechanism(s) underlying the capacity of JOBELYN to boost RBC and Hb production in anaemic conditions

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Potential of JOBELYN in chronic viral infections

The possible beneficial effects of JOBELYN in chronic viral infections, such as HIV/AIDS and COVID-19, have been envisaged based on its potent anti-inflammatory capacity, as well as its ability to modulate the immune system by increasing the activity of natural killer cells and activation of macrophages [15,17]. The pathogenesis of HIV is known to be associated with the depletion of the immune function, which predisposes infected individuals to secondary infections [94-95] due to the ensuing immunocompromised state l [95-97]. Although the impact of COVID 19 infection is closely related to chronic inflammation, commonly described as the cytokine storm [97], the severity of the disease also depends on the functionality of the immune system [96-97]. The pattern of invasion and infectivity is also similar to the HIV, as the SARS-CoV-2 virus exhibits receptor attachment, cellular entry, replication, cellular outlet, and cytokine induction [94-97]. The complex nature of HIV and COVID-19 suggests a need for the development of interventions with polyvalent actions that can mitigate the inflammatory mediators while also strengthening the immune system against viral replication and infectivity [97-98]. In this regard, the therapeutic potentials of several polyphenolic compounds in controlling the key cellular mechanisms involved in the infectivity of these viral infections are actively being investigated [97]. This is not surprising, as polyphenols are well-known to modulate the immune response and boost resistance to chronic viral infections [15, 17, 26, 97, 99].

The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of JOBELYN [15, 17, 42] are strongly indicative of its potential anti-viral action against HIV/AIDs and COVID-19. Pre-clinical studies have shown that JOBELYN up-regulates the expressions of chemokines and increases CD4 cell counts in cultured human monocytes and macrophages [41] which are known to be severely affected in HIV infection [17, 95,100]. Specifically, Benson et al. [17] have shown that JOBELYN causes several-fold increases in the expression of chemokines (e.g., RANTES/CCL5, Mip-1a/CCL3, and MIP-1b/CCL4) known to inhibit HIV entry into CD4+ T-cells. Interestingly, increases in chemokine production exert protective effects on the host immune response against HIV infection and disease progression [95,100]. JOBELYN has also been reported to exert immunomodulatory actions on a wide range of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α and, in particular, interferon-α [17], suggesting effective viral suppressive capabilities in patients with HIV/AIDs [95-96]. It has also been reported that JOBELYN increased interferon-alpha (IFN-α) levels by 12-fold [17], further suggesting its immunomodulatory and viral suppressive capacities. It is important to note that IFN-α has been reported to inhibit HIV replication [95]. Interestingly, naringenin—one of the prominent phytoactive constituents of JOBELYN—has been reported to show a strong inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro [101]. The inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, by naringenin has been ascribed to a synergistic action that enhances its antiviral effects [101]. Thus, the potential benefits of naringenin in COVID-19 may be ascribed to its ability to inhibit or slow down the viral infection and the associated cytokine release/cytokine storm syndrome [101]. It is interesting to note that the leaf sheaths of Sorghum bicolor—the principal source of JOBELYN—has been listed as one of the plants used for treating respiratory infections in an ethnomedicinal survey [102], lending further credence to its therapeutic potential in COVID-19. Indeed, Alhazmi et al. have found that Sorghum bicolor is one of the medicinal plants from which molecules with potential therapeutic use against viral diseases, such as COVID-19, have been extracted [103]. From a broader perspective, JOBELYN is, therefore, a potential chemopreventive agent for modulating the immune function and controlling inflammatory reactions in the context of viral infections, such as HIV/AIDs and COVID-19. In fact, clinical studies have shown that it increased the CD4+ T-lymphocyte cellular count as well as bone marrow function, indicating a direct potential benefit in HIV/AIDS [15, 39].

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Cancer chemopreventive potential of JOBELYN

The bioactive constituents of JOBELYN are known to inhibit cell proliferation in cancer cells through the stimulation of various apoptotic promoter genes, as well as down-regulating certain apoptotic inhibitor genes that are critical in carcinogenesis [104]. It is worth noting that cancer is a disease of multiple pathologies, though dysregulated or abnormal cell replication appears to be the primary underlying factor [105-106]. Cancer may ensue as a result of critical alterations in DNA at the site of some classes of genes that are important in regulating cell proliferation, cell death, and DNA repair, as well as tumour-suppressing genes [105-106]. Damage to DNA repair genes is a major predisposing factor leading to mutations in the genome, ultimately increasing the probability of neoplastic transformations [105-106]. Basically, cancer formation involves three major phases: Initiation, promotion, and progression (see Figure 4). The stage of initiation is a rapid, irreversible change in the genetic machinery of the target cell that primes it for subsequent neoplasm. This early phase of carcinogenesis is known to be due to exposure to mutagenic carcinogens, which interact with the DNA to form permanent heritable change(s) in the genome that are yet to be expressed phenotypically [105-106]. This suggests that initiation alone does not result in tumour formation; however, initiated cells display altered cellular characteristics, which may include altered responsiveness to the microenvironment and a proliferative advantage, relative to the surrounding normal cells [105-106].

The stage of promotion has been described as a reversible process in the life cycle of the cancer cell, which usually entails the conversion of initiated cells into active proliferation to a greater extent than normal cells [105-106]. An essential feature of tumour promotion is the creation of a mitogenic environment and enhancement of the possibility for further genetic damage [105-106]. It has been reasoned that polyphenols with multiple actions capable of targeting the various pathways that trigger the promotion of initiated/latent cells to active proliferations may retard tumour development [10, 107-108]. This suggests the importance of polyphenol-rich foods with chemopreventive capabilities. The final phase of cancer progression is characterized by the development of irreversible neoplasm, manifested as a rapid increase in tumour size, with the cells undergoing further mutations with invasive and metastatic potentials [105-106, 108]. Although the efficacy of phytochemicals might be limited in this last phase, there have been several claims of the effectiveness of dietary polyphenols against a variety of tumours. Epidemiological and animal studies have shown that phenolic compounds exhibit anti-cancer properties through multiple mechanisms related to antioxidant activity, induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and the promotion of tumour suppressor proteins [7, 10, 109].Epidemiological studies have also reported that sorghum consumption is correlated with a low incidence of oesophageal cancer in various parts of the world [10, 109-111]. Park et al. [112] have reported that the metastasis of breast cancer to the lungs was blocked by sorghum extracts in an immune-deficient mouse metastasis model. In vitro studies of sorghum extracts on several cancer cells have revealed induction of cell apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation, and promotion of the expression of cell cycle regulators [13, 18, 104, 107]. The effects of phenolic extracts from 13 sorghum accessions on cancer cell growth on both hepatocarcinoma HepG2 and colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco2 cell lines have recently been investigated [7]. It was concluded that the phenolic extracts of various sorghum accessions inhibited HepG2 or Caco-2 cancer cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner, through cytostatic and apoptotic mechanisms [7]. The anticancer properties of sorghum extracts have been ascribed partly to the high content of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins [13]. Moreover, Makanjuola et al. [113] have reported that the 7-methoxyflavone-apigeninidin and apigenin constituents of JOBELYN exhibited anticancer potential through the modulation of immune cells in in vitro models. This echoes the description by the National Cancer Institute of JOBELYN as the richest source of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins; indeed, it has the highest contents of various polyphenolic compounds among food plants, with high capability for chemoprevention and inhibition of cell proliferation [28]. Although more studies on the potential anticancer property  of  JOBELYN are necessary, the existing information suggests its valuable benefits as a supplement for cancer prevention.

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Anti-aging potential of JOBELYN

Aging has been described as a universal and multi-factorial process characterized by a gradual decline of physiological functions. It occurs at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels, and comprises a series of pathological mechanisms such as deregulated autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, telomere shortening, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction [81-83]. The deregulation of these interconnected pathways leads cells to a state of senescence, which contributes to aging and age-related diseases. Although many theories have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanism associated with the aging process, the free radical theory, proposed by Harman [84] in 1956, appears to be highly insightful. According to this theory, aging is associated with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species that exert oxidative damage to cellular biomolecules and apoptosis, ultimately leading to a decline of physiological function and death [82-84]. The cellular degeneration and early apoptosis caused by free radicals produce oxidative stress, which has been regarded as the main pathological culprit in premature aging [82, 84]. Moreover, oxidative stress is often aggravated by a variety of stressors, such as chronic infections and abiotic factors, which may accelerate aging and aged-related diseases, as well as increasing vulnerability to death [78, 85]. The deterioration in bodily function with aging is the primary risk factor for most human pathologies, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases [78, 85].

Strategic focus on interventions that increase lifespan in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster, and the potential of translating such discoveries into the development of therapies to combat age-related diseases, are currently being pursued [78]. Such interventions that are capable of slowing aging are likely to delay the onset of many human diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this regard, the consumption of foods rich in polyphenols has been reported to have probable preventive and therapeutic implications in the aforementioned non-communicable diseases [86-88]. Recently, food plants rich in polyphenols have been described as the ‘Elixir of Life’, as they possess the capabilities of promoting longevity [78].

The effectiveness of the anti-aging action of nutritional interventions has been advocated in the war against age-related diseases, promoting healthy living and longevity [81]. Mechanistically, natural supplements have been shown to exhibit polyvalent actions against oxidative, inflammatory, and degenerative processes, ultimately aiding immune functions and, thus, improving quality of life [78]. Indeed, food supplements with antioxidant-boosting capacity have been gaining attention for the prevention and treatment of chronic conditions linked to ROS [78], as they have relevant properties related to age-related and chronic syndromes [78, 86-88].

The probable anti-aging potentials of JOBELYN lie in its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective effects in experimental models [22, 43, 89]. Studies have shown that the polyphenolic constituents of JOBELYN, such as apigenin and luteolin, exhibit anti-aging activity through neuroprotective mechanisms relating to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptosis effects [78, 82, 90]. Interestingly, the first concrete evidence regarding the anti-aging effect of JOBELYN came from a study conducted at Brunswick Laboratory, USA, which revealed that it inhibited the activity of elastase-1 and collagenase-1 [15]: enzymes that have been implicated in premature aging, especially of the skin [91]. Specifically, JOBELYN was shown to more be effective than vitamin C and ferulic acid in inhibiting collagenase and elastase, suggesting its capability to promote skin health [15]. The potential of JOBELYN in age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, has also been investigated in a scopolamine-induced amnesia model [92]. The study revealed that JOBELYN attenuated amnesia through neuronal antioxidant protective mechanisms [92]. A more recent study using Drosophila melanogaster showed that JOBELYN extended the lifespan and improved motor function of the flies, through augmentation of the antioxidant status [93]. In addition, it also extended the lifespan of D. melanogaster exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [92]. JOBELYN has also been shown to exhibit a neuroprotective capability against neurodegeneration in a binge-alcohol rat model through modulation of cellular apoptosis (p53) neurotrophin-positive expression and decreased inflammatory signalling cascade in specific brain regions [22, 89]. These experimental findings lend further credence to the potential of JOBELYN in promoting cellular survival and longevity.

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JOBELYN as a potential adaptogen

The routine uses of JOBELYN in an adaptogenic fashion for the relief of feelings of intense stress and to restore the much-needed energy during periods of recovery from debilitating diseases represents another major reason for its use [16, 19, 24]. It is important to note that the response to both biotic (pathogens) and abiotic (physical and psychosocial factors) stressors induces adaptive responses; however, when stress persists and becomes intense, the adaptive mechanisms of the organism become deficient, resulting in the pathogenesis of several human diseases [114-116]. The breakdown in adaptive responses, which signals organ pathologies and immune dysfunctions, was coined by Hans Selye as general adaptation syndrome [8, 117-118], who reasoned that human illnesses stemmed from ineffective adaptation [118]. The notion of general adaptation syndrome led to the search during the second World War by Russian scientists for substances—later called adaptogens—of plant origin that could be used to enhance the capability for physical and mental work, and which can help individuals to survive in challenging situations involving intense/prolonged stress [117, 119].

Adaptogens were initially defined as substances that enhance the “state of non-specific resistance” to stress; a physiological condition that is linked with dysregulation of the neuroendocrine–immune system [117, 119]. More recently, adaptogens were defined as a category of herbal medicinal and nutritional products promoting the adaptability, resilience, and survival of living organisms in stressful situations [8]. Thus, adaptogens are meant to stimulate the intrinsic adaptive mechanisms of the organism, in order to help it survive in situations of intense/prolonged stress [117]. The most striking features of adaptogens include the capability to mount resistance against varied stressors, such as physical, chemical, biological (pathogens), and psychological noxious factors, thus exerting beneficial healthy effects independent of the nature of the pathological conditions [117, 119]. However, in clinical settings, adaptogens are generally reputed for their ability to exert an anti-fatigue effect, increasing mental work capacity against a background of stress and fatigue, particularly with respect to tolerance to mental exhaustion and enhanced attention [117].

Extensive reviews have documented the ability of adaptogenic substances to activate the protective mechanisms of cells, in order to promote increased survival rates in both in vitro and in vivo models [8, 117]. Adaptogens have been reported to effectively prevent and treat stress-related and aging disorders, such as chronic fatigue, memory impairment, depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, diabetes, heart diseases, chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, infections, and cancer [8]. Based on the polyvalent pharmacological actions of adaptogens, it has been proposed that the normal paradigm of “one drug for one disease: does not correctly apply to them [8]. Plants with known adaptogenic actions include Panax ginseng, Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Ocimum sanctum L., Piper longum L., Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Rhodiola rosea L., Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) [8].

The first concrete experimental evidence of the potential adaptogenic activity of JOBELYN was based on its reported ability of bringing about relief with respect to feelings of intense stress and as an energizer in the context of debilitating disease [16, 19, 24]. Its adaptogenic potential has also been demonstrated in unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS), as it attenuated memory deficits induced by UCMS through neuroprotective mechanisms relating to suppression of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines [120]. It is worthy of note to understand that UCMS mimics the ways in which humans encounter multiple stressors on a daily basis, and is generally accepted as the most suitable model for elucidation of the pathological mechanisms of chronic stress-induced organ pathologies and immune dysfunctions. In the UCMS model, JOBELYN also attenuated loss of neuronal cells in the Cornu Ammonis 3 (CA3) of the hippocampus, suggesting neuroprotective effect [120]. Moreover, it also reduced serum corticosterone concentrations [120], a major biomarker of chronic stress response. It is well-known that cortisol-induced activation of oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways is the primary culprit involved in the mediation of stress-related pathologies [8]. Indeed, an elevated concentration of cortisol serves as a key biomarker of intense stress. Substances with adaptogenic activity have been shown to reduce serum concentrations of corticosterone [8]. Thus, the ability of JOBELYN to reduce corticosterone is an important finding from the study of Umukoro et al. [120]. The possibility of JOBELYN behaving like an adaptogen is also based on findings that it attenuated depression-like symptoms in mice subjected to stressful situations (i.e., forced swimming exercise and tail suspension protocols) [121]. In an in vitro stress model, it was also reported that JOBELYN protected RBCs against hyposaline-induced haemolysis [43], suggesting cyto-protection and increased cellular resistance to stress. Notably, the recent finding that JOBELYN increased the survival rate and prolonged the lifespan of LPS-exposed Drosophila melanogaster reinforces its potential adaptogenic-like property [93]. This is in agreement with previous reports linking adaptogens to increased lifespan and stress resistance in C. elegans [122]; another model organism widely used for the elucidation of the neurobiological mechanisms of stress and age-related disorders. The capability of JOBELYN to combat stress in various models may be related to the presence of minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals that can modulate the key mediators of stress response and immune defence mechanisms in response to stressors. These sets of reports are suggestive of JOBELYN’s capability to mitigate stress in healthy individuals.

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Phytoactive constituents and nutritional composition of JOBELYN                                   

Some phytochemical studies have shown that JOBELYN contains diverse bioactive polyphenol-rich constituents, which can be broadly divided into phenolic acids and flavonoids. Polyphenols are the main secondary metabolites known to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and chemopreventive effects; the four key pillars of healthy living and wellness [9,26-27]. It has been reported that all food plants, such as cereals, fruits, and vegetables, contain polyphenols in variable quantities [9, 27]. The leaf sheaths of the special domesticated West African variety of the Sorghum plant have been documented as having the highest concentrations of various polyphenols (especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidin) among food plants [17]. Thus, its unique properties have been ascribed to its high polyphenol content, when compared with other plant-based products (Figure 3). It is interesting to note that these unique properties, among other scientific reasons, explain the inclusion of JOBELYN into the drug dictionary of the National Cancer Institute, USA, where it was described as a substance rich in polyphenols and polyphenolic acids with the potential for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and chemopreventive capabilities [28]. 


High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV spectral characterization studies have revealed that JOBELYN contains apigenindin (stabilized 3-deoxyanthocyanidin, apigenin (flavone), luteolin (flavone), luteolinidin (anthocyanidin), and naringenin (flavone); see Table 1. Thus, flavonoids are the most bioactive polyphenolic compounds present in JOBELYN [15,17,29]. A literature survey indicated that luteolin, naringenin, and apigenin are the most-Based on the recommended daily allowance indices, JOBELYN is known to be very rich in minerals such as iron, zinc, calcium, copper, magnesium, selenium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium, which are essential for metabolism and neuronal communication [31]. It is also rich in various vitamins, including vitamin B12, niacin, and riboflavin. In fact, the presence of iron and vitamin B12 are clinically relevant in anaemic and immune-related compromised conditions [32-33]. It is also rich in proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and omega-3 and -6 fatty acids. Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids, for example, have been recognized as active promoters of anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and modulation of neurotransmitters functions, as well as functioning in the maintenance of cellular membrane integrity and activation of neuroprotective mechanisms [34-35]. The rich phytochemicals, minerals, and vitamins with proven biological activities may account for the diverse health benefits of JOBELYN when consumed routinely, especially in regimented doses.studied bioactive flavonoids present in JOBELYN, with diverse pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects [17,27, 30].

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There have been claims that SBSJ is helpful in the management of arthritic pain and other inflammatory conditions [17, 43]. The recommended daily dose (1–2 capsules) of SBSJ has been reported to help in alleviating the excruciating pain associated with arthritis [48]. Arthritis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which is widely known to impair the quality of life of the affected patients, and is a major cause of disability among the elderly [49-50]. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial membrane, pain, and joint immobility [48, 51-52]. Although the pathogenesis of the disease is yet to be fully known, the infiltration of inflammatory cells (leukocytes) into the joints appears to play a prominent role in the initiation of the tissue destruction that epitomizes the arthritic condition [50, 52-53]. The initiation and progression of the disease have been closely connected with the migration of inflammatory cells to the inflamed joint, in response to the release of chemical mediators such as cytokines, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes [54-56]. Furthermore, the activity of the inflammatory cells trigger the release of free radicals and other cytotoxic substances, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, which further enhance joint tissue damage [49-50, 54].

The multi-dimensional nature of the disease, therefore, suggests that a non-conventional approach based on the use of agents with polyvalent actions that can target the multiple mediators involved in its pathology may be effective [49-50]. Interestingly, a number of polyphenol-rich medicinal plants are being investigated as new medicines for the treatment of arthritis-related pain [57-58]. In this regard, SBSJ has been extensively studied in various in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation [17, 43, 48]. In a carrageenan  model of acute inflammation, SBSJ was shown to potently reduce inflammatory paw oedema in rats [43]. This model has served as one of the rational tools in the pre-clinical screening of drugs with anti-inflammatory property, as the reduction of paw oedema in rats is akin to the ability to attenuate acute inflammation in humans [59]. In another study, SBSJ  was evaluated in a granuloma air pouch model of chronic inflammation. This model has been shown to closely mimic the pathology of arthritic disorders, based on the pattern of disease progression, tissue destruction, infiltration of White Blood Cells (WBCs), and release of cytotoxic mediators [54, 60-62].

The efficacy of pharmacological ligands in the granuloma air pouch is based on reduction of inflammatory exudates, WBC count, concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress, and inflammatory mediators in the fluid exudates, as well as the histological cyto-architecture of the pouch tissue [61-62]. Notably, SBSJ was reported to decrease the volume of inflammatory exudates, WBC count, and positively modulated the altered fluid concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats. More importantly, histological studies revealed that SBSJ protected the pouch tissue of the rats subjected to carrageenan-induced granulomatous chronic inflammation [43]. These findings further provide experimental evidence supporting the potential of SBSJ in chronic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. This observation has also been validated by the finding that SBSJ reduced the joint inflammation, oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) in rodents [48]. It is important to note that CFA-induced chronic inflammation is a well-recognized model for studying molecular mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of arthritis [63-64]. 

The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of SBSJ has been evaluated using a rat RBC membrane stabilizing model. The erythrocyte membrane is considered to be similar to the lysosomal membrane, which plays an important role in inflammation [65-66]. This in vitro test was based on the release of haemoglobin from RBCs exposed to hyposaline, and the prevention of RBC lysis has been described as a biochemical index for evaluation of compounds with anti-inflammatory property [65-66]. Thus, compounds with membrane-stabilizing capacity are expected to demonstrate anti-inflammatory activity by preventing the release of lysosomal phospholipases, which are prime mediators in the early phase of the inflammatory process [65-66]. Thus, the findings that SBSJ exhibited membrane-stabilizing activity lends credence to the experimental evidence supporting its anti-inflammatory effect and probable beneficial role in combating inflammatory diseases. Benson et al. [17] have evaluated the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of SBSJ in cultured polymorphonuclear cells, and reported that it also showed anti-inflammatory activity through mechanisms relating to suppression of leukocyte migration and an antioxidative protective effect. They further reported that the antioxidant protective capacity of SBSJ was several-fold higher than that reported for various cereal grains and vegetables [17]. This sorghum-based supplement was also shown to exhibit inhibitory activity against a variety of oxidant molecules, with a total oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) of 37,622 μmol TE/g [17]. The authors concluded that SBSJ contained polyphenol-rich phytomolecules, such as luteolin, naringenin, and apigenin, which have been established as potent antioxidants and anti-inflammatory moieties [17]. Similarly, findings from the in vitro studies of Mankanjuola et al. [29] have revealed that 7-methoxyflavone-apigeninidin and apigenin constituents of the sorghum formulation exhibited inhibitory activity against PG‐E2 expression and COX‐2 enzyme activity, further suggesting its role in inflammatory disorders.

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Some evidences have been presented in the literature that have established that the polyphenol-rich phytomoieties contained in SBSJ exhibited a wide range of neuro-protective effects against certain brain conditions, including stroke. It has been suggested that SBSJ may be protective against ischemic stroke through several mechanisms, including direct inhibition of the NF-kB signalling pathway [67-69]. Ischemic stroke is a fatal disease caused by sudden obstruction of the cerebral blood flow, with subsequent neuronal cell death [67, 70-71]. Occlusion of the carotid artery and the attendant inhibition of reperfusion are critical factors involved in ischemic stroke [67, 70-71]. The morbidity and mortality associated with stroke are alarming, resulting in huge losses of economic manpower and productivity [72-74]. Stroke is typically associated with neurological deficits with accompanying physical disabilities, and the belief that it is incurable may also lead to various psychiatric disturbances, such as anxiety, depression, and memory deficits [75]. 

Ischemic stroke accounts for over 85% of all cases of stroke, and its pathology is known to be due to the activation of neuronal oxidative and inflammatory pathways [67, 76]. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies have reported increased biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines after the onset of ischemic stroke [67, 76]. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are some of the most studied cytokines in stroke pathology [67, 77]. In stroke patients, IL-6 has been linked to early neurological deterioration, greater infarct volumes, and poorer long-term outcomes [67]. High plasma levels of TNF-α have also been correlated with infarct volume and neurological deficits in various models of cerebral ischemia [67, 76]. During reperfusion, there is an increase in serum cortisol, which further exacerbates neuronal damage by disrupting glucose homeostasis and increasing oxidative stress in the brain. Moreover, increased oxidative stress and leukocyte infiltration result in the formation of more pro-inflammatory cytokines, which perpetuate neurodegeneration in the brains of animals with ischemic stroke [67, 76-77]. On this basis, current approaches to the treatment of the disease using thrombolytic agents are quite limited in scope, as they cannot antagonize the injurious oxidative and inflammatory events that underpin ischemic stroke [67-68, 78]. Thus, oxidative and neuro-inflammatory pathways are currently being viewed as promising targets for the development of new drugs that could be used to antagonize the multiple mechanisms and mediators involved in ischemic brain injury [67-68, 78-79]. Bioactive compounds of plant origin with potent antioxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory activities are believed to hold promise for the development of therapeutic strategies [67-68, 78-79]. 

Indeed, several studies have shown that various phytochemicals have the ability to target the multiple pathways involved in the pathophysiology of stroke, including oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptotic cell death [78-79]. Moreover, epidemiological data in the extant literature have evidenced that regular consumption of food rich in polyphenols can reduce the risk of stroke [78-79]. SBSJ has been experimentally evaluated against ischemic stroke induced through the occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery by a group of scientists at the University of Ibadan [16]. The results of their investigations revealed that the neurological deficits produced by the occlusion of the bilateral common carotid artery in rats—which approximates the clinical characteristics seen in patients with ischemic stroke [80]—were attenuated by SBSJ [16]. In addition, biochemical changes relating to increases in oxidative biomarkers and depletion of antioxidant defence molecules in the brains of rats subjected to ischemic stroke were mitigated by SBSJ [16]. The authors also reported that SBSJ reduced the brain contents of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) and the expression of immunopositive cells of NF-kB in rats with ischemic stroke [16]. The neuroprotective effect of SBSJ is another major finding obtained from that study. It is well-known that stroke causes damage to several neuronal pathways, which are crucial in the regulation of motor and cognitive functions [67-68]. Thus, the finding that SBSJ protected the neurons of the striatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus, as well as increasing the population of viable neuronal cells in these brain regions of ischemic rats, corroborates its neuroprotective capacity. However, robust clinical trials using neurological and molecular markers are necessary to establish its clinical efficacy in stroke patients.

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Based on the recommended daily allowance indices, SBSJ is known to be very rich in minerals such as iron, zinc, calcium, copper, magnesium, selenium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium, which are essential for metabolism and neuronal communication [31]. It is also rich in various vitamins, including vitamin B12, niacin, and riboflavin. In fact, the presence of iron and vitamin B12 are clinically relevant in anaemic and immune-related compromised conditions [32-33]. It is also rich in proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and omega-3 and -6 fatty acids. Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids, for example, have been recognized as active promoters of anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and modulation of neurotransmitters functions, as well as functioning in the maintenance of cellular membrane integrity and activation of neuroprotective mechanisms [34-35]. The rich phytochemicals, minerals, and vitamins with proven biological activities may account for the diverse health benefits of SBSJ when consumed routinely, especially in regimented doses.



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